Lucy Eldine Gonzalez Parsons (c. 1853 – March 7, 1942) was an American labor organizer, radical socialist and anarcho-communist. She is remembered as a powerful orator. Parsons entered the radical movement following her marriage to newspaper editor Albert Parsons and moved with him from Texas to Chicago, where she contributed to the newspaper he famously edited—The Alarm.
Following her husband’s 1887 execution in conjunction with the Haymarket affair, Parsons remained a leading American radical activist, as a founder of the Industrial Workers of the World and member of other political organizations.
Lucy Parsons was born in 1853, in Buffalo Creek, Texas, although she listed Virginia as her birthplace on her children’s birth certificates. Her origins are poorly documented, and she gave different accounts at different times, so it is sometimes difficult to sort fact from myth.
On her death certificate, her parents’ names were listed as Pedro Díaz and Marites González, both born in Mexico. She may have been born a slave, to parents of Native American, African American and Mexican ancestry. She herself denied any African heritage, claiming only Native American and Mexican ancestry.